Tenure cuts across many economic and social issues. Here we present a few of the key considerations that a company should internalize in order to act consistently with the intent of the VGGT.
a. For more on Land Rights and Human Rights see: Institute for Human Rights and Business. http://www.ihrb.org/publications/ reports/preventing-conflicts-over-land.html; OHCHR. 2014. Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human RightsE/2014/86. http://www.un.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws.asp?m=E/2014/86; http://www.ihrb.org/pdf/Land_Rights_ Issues_in_International_HRL.pdf; http://www.ihrb.org/pdf/Preventing_ Conflicts_over_Land-Draft_Position_Paper_Nov09.pdf.
b. Wickeri and Kalhan. 2010. Land Rights Issues in International Human Rights Law. Malaysian Journal on Human Rights, Vol. 4, No. 10, 2010. http://ssrn.com/abstract=1921447.
c. See Annex 2.
d. See also: IFC. 2012. Guidance Note 7: Indigenous Peoples. http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/ 50eed180498009f9a89bfa336b93d75f/ Updated_GN7-2012.pdf?MOD=AJPERES.
e. FAO. 2014. Respecting Free, Prior and Informed Consent: Practical guidance for governments, companies, NGOs, indigenous peoples and local communities in relation to land acquisition. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3496e.pdf.
f. For more on women’s rights to land see: FAO. 2013. Governing land for women and men: A technical guide to support the achievement of responsible gender-equitable governance of land tenure. http://www.fao.org/docrep/017/i3114e/ i3114e.pdf; Landesa Center for Women’s Land Rights. http://www.landesa.org/women-and-land; The FAO Gender and Land Rights Database. http://www.fao.org/gender-landrights-database/en; and UN Women & OHCR. 2013. Realizing Women’s Rights to Land and other Pro- ductive Resources. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/ Publications/RealizingWomensRights toLand.pdf.
g. For more on smallholders and food security see: IFPRI. 2013. From Subsistence to Profit Transforming Smallholder Farms. http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/ publications/pr26.pdf and Oxfam’s Smallholder Supply Chain initiative. http://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/our-work/private-sector-markets/smallholder-supply-chains.
h. FAO. 2012. Smallholders and Family Farmers Factsheet. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/ nr/sustainability_pathways/docs/Factsheet _SMALLHOLDERS.pdf.
i. Oxfam. 2010. Think big. Go small. Adapting business models to incorporate smallholders into supply chains. Briefings for Business No. 6. http://oxfamilibrary.openrepository.com/ oxfam/bitstream/10546/114051/1/bfb06-think-big-go-small-010510-en.pdf.
j. For more information on outgrower production and resources a company can use to design outgrower schemes see: FAO’s Contract Farming Resources Center. http://www.fao.org/ag/ags/contract-farming/index-cf/en/. To ensure a company’s outgrower schemes are up to international standards see FAO. 2012. Guiding Principles for Responsible Contract Farming. http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2858e /i2858e.pdf.
k. For more on forced evictions and expropriation for public purpose see: UN-OHCHR. Basic Principles and Guidelines on Devel- opment-based Evictions And Displacement: Annex 1 of the report of the Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living A/HRC/4/18. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/ Housing/Guidelines_en.pdf; IFC Performance Standards; International Bar Association. 2014. Business and Human Rights Guidance for Bar Associations. http://www.ibanet.org/Article/Detail.aspx?ArticleUid=c9bd50c6-c2b3-455b-b086-a7efbfe1f6a5; FAO. 2008. Land Tenure Study 10: Compulsory Acquisition of Land and Compensation. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/i0506e/ i0506e00.pdf.
l. United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP). 2008. http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/docu- ments/DRIPS_en.pdf.